According to Common Core Standards, fifth-grade math problems include adding and subtracting fractions, multiplying common fractions and dividing with two-digit divisors. Educators also expect fifth-graders to solve problems dealing with length, weight and volumes, using scales, thermometers, gauges, protractors and other tools.Two-step problems involving addition, subtraction and multiplication are also typical of fifth-grade mathematics curricula.
Many typical fifth-grade math problems describe a situation and ask the student to use the information to solve the problem. For example, the question tells the student that a store has a certain number of pumpkins to sell on Saturday and Sunday before Halloween, and it sells 1/3 of the pumpkins on Saturday and 1/2 of the remaining pumpkins on Sunday. Based on this information given, the student must determine what fraction of the original number of pumpkins is left on Sunday.
Related to volume and measurements, educators expect children in fifth grade to estimate the area of a polygon or an irregular polygon, or calculate the volume of a rectangular prism. They also learn to solve real-world problems, such as comparing temperatures on a thermometer in Fahrenheit and Celsius, or learning how the standard and metric systems of measure compare. Other types of problems focus on using schedules and calendars and estimating money amounts to the nearest dollar.