Chemistry textbooks typically discuss different types of matter and their composition, as well as the laws governing how substances react. Introductory topics often lay the groundwork for comparing states of matter by explaining techniques for measuring physical properties, such as density, melting point, color, conductivity and solubility.
Chemistry textbooks investigate atoms, the building blocks of matter, and their internal components: protons, neutrons and electrons. These topics lead to deeper evaluation of organic and inorganic matter, usually with greater emphasis on the latter branch. Organic matter involves living organisms that contain carbon compounds, and topics may include dietary nutrients, hydrocarbon compounds and agricultural cycles. Inorganic chemistry involve carbon-free entities, including gases and metallic compounds.
Discussions of chemical composition provide a foundation for categorization and reaction concepts, such as the periodic table, formulas and chemical nomenclature. These combined topics help students transition to different forms of chemical bonding and explore the compositional effects of changes in atomic and molecular activity. Chemical reaction topics further explain how subtle differences in composition can alter underlying chemical properties, producing a wide range of reactive behavior.
Textbooks often elaborate on the properties and behaviors of gases and liquid solutions. In thermochemistry segments, textbooks explore the unique characteristics of heat-based reactions, while electrochemistry topics focus on the properties and reactions of electrical currents.