A generic academic report contains an abstract, contents page, introduction, literature survey and body. It also has a conclusion, recommendations, references and appendices. A typical long report has a title page, acknowledgments, a contents page and an abstract. It further contains sections on methodology and findings and ends with conclusions, recommendations, appendices and a bibliography.
Academic reports clearly and concisely inform and persuade the reader about a subject, situation or problem using research as evidence. Writers use a formal writing style, analytical thinking and paragraphs to discuss their data and draw conclusions. To ensure readers can quickly scan them, reports use headings, subheadings and bullet points, as well as tables, graphs and illustrations.
A report's title page describes its subject, and the abstract states the problem, how the researcher investigated it and then summarizes what he found and what it means. The contents page lists the report's major and minor sections and illustrations, while the introduction provides background and elaborates on the investigation's purpose. The literature review outlines what accredited scholars and researchers have recently published on the topic and critiques them, while the main section details what the researcher investigated, how he investigated it, what he discovered and how he has interpreted the findings.
The conclusion then summarizes whether the study met its purpose and the resulting significance. The recommendations propose a course of action, the bibliography lists the research sources, and the appendices contain illustrations, graphs, charts, tables and other data the researcher omitted from the report's body.