Critics of assigning homework to children argue that the practice causes undue stress for children and does not necessarily improve academic performance or knowledge. It also creates a hardship for parents. Recent studies, including one by researchers at Stanford University, indicate that the average American child is assigned more than three hours of homework per school day, resulting in children suffering from health problems, including headaches and sleep deprivation.
Parents and others who oppose homework contend that spending six to eight hours per day in school is sufficient. They say that children should be able to spend their after-school hours relaxing, socializing and participating in non-academic activities that make them well-rounded individuals.
Many parents say that requiring children to do homework forces them to be "homework police," which they say places undue demands on them.
According to Harvard University, a 2012 study revealed that there is no correlation between the amount of time students spend on homework and their grades.
Teachers assigning homework have been lauded and criticized in the United States over the decades. Even as early as the late 1800s, Dr. Joseph Mayer Rice urged educators to place limits on homework, claiming that excessive homework caused eyestrain and nervous conditions in children.