Pearson, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt and McGraw-Hill all publish fourth-grade math textbooks in the United States. They also publish additional textbooks across numerous grade levels and academic disciplines.
The federal government provides states with grants for specific educational supplies such as textbooks. States use these federal grants to supplement the educational funding that they provide to local school districts. School districts use educational funding to pay for operating and equipment costs. These costs include the purchase of approved textbooks.
Approved textbooks appear on a list provided by each state’s governing educational body. Each state chooses textbooks that are best aligned with the state’s educational standards and testing program. The approval process has changed slightly in light of the implementation of the Common Core State Standards.
The Common Core State Standards are national educational standards. They were designed using input from numerous state and federal sources. The purpose of the Common Core State Standards was to create a set of unified educational standards that each state could use that represented career and college readiness. Publishers have since adjusted textbooks to represent the Common Core. However, not every state chose to adopt the Common Core, and some states have since pulled their support for the initiative.