A proctored exam is a test administered and supervised by a person appointed or approved by a school or testing service to monitor the test. Proctored exams are often given to students who are taking online classes. Students go to a location to take the test in a proctor's presence.
The job of the proctor is to maintain security during the exam by making sure the person taking the test is the one who is supposed to be taking it and ensuring the test is taken without breach of policy. Some institutions directly appoint the proctor, while others require the student to secure the proctor, though the person must be approved by the institution.