Polish surnames include Nowak, Kowalski, Wi?niewski, Kowalczyk and Kami?ski. As the last name of more than 200,000 people, Nowak is the most common surname in Poland. The suffixes "-ski" and "-czyk" appear in many surnames.
Other common surnames include Jankowski, Kaczmarek, Dabrowski and Grabowski.
The suffix "-ski" is masculine, with the feminine version appearing as "-ska." Thus, Kowalski and Kowalska are versions of the same name, as is the plural Kowalscy. Until recent centuries, names ending in "-ski" represented nobility.
Many surnames derive from towns, occupations or the given names of fathers. For example, the name Kozlowski means a person from Kozlow, and the names Kowalski and Kowalczyk both derive from the word "kowal," which means "smith."