Each book is a little different, but most books have a title page, copyright page, table of contents, body and index. Some books also have a dedication page, foreword, preface, introduction and acknowledgements.
The title and copyright pages, table of contents, acknowledgments and introduction are located at the front of the book, and the body immediately follows. The end of the book may have a glossary, index and bibliography if the author chooses to include them.
In publishing terms, the items located at the front of the book are called "front matter." The body of the book is called "body matter" and the end of the book is called "end matter."