During first grade, math lessons teach several concepts, including counting beyond 10 and adding and subtracting whole numbers less than 100. The lessons increase in sophistication as the year passes and teach the child additional ways to complete these problems. Other lessons teach about place value, measurements and geometry.
Place value teaches the child to recognize the location of a digit in a number to determine its value. The "2" in the number 25 represents two 10s, while the "5" indicates five ones. These basic math concepts help to lay the groundwork for more advanced math concepts as the child progresses through the subject.
Some of the math lessons at the first-grade level include comparing sizes. The teacher might ask the student to choose the object that is larger than the others in a group. Lessons might include building with equal-sized blocks. These lessons become the basis for learning measurements and teaching students to compare objects to a ruler. Students also begin to work with clocks to measure time in this grade.
First-grade geometry looks at shapes and helps students determine what shapes combine to form a more complex shape. For example, the student can add two triangles to create a square or rectangle.