Some key components that a reading tutorial program focuses on are developing phonemic awareness, phonics, reading fluency, building a vocabulary and establishing reading comprehension strategies. Other components may include enhancing a student's motivation to read and using technology to enhance reading practice and pleasure.
Phonemic awareness involves the memorization of sounds in words and learning how to manipulate such sounds as they appear in different words. The phonics aspect of the reading tutorial develops familiarity with connections between written and spoken words and sounds. Working on oral reading skills gives students the confidence to be able to read with accuracy at increasing rates.
The more vocabulary words that a reader can learn, the fewer times the fluid reading practice is interrupted by something that wtrips up the student. It also helps students more easily place common words in their proper context to enhance meaning. Any reading comprehension strategies used are for the purpose of helping the student gain a fuller understanding of the text. Such strategies must have some basis on research and provide the tools for continuous assessment of the student's progress. The strategies should also be varied enough that they cover all the essential skills needed for reading.