Statewide standardized testing became more important with the passage of President George W. Bush's key education initiative, No Child Left Behind, in 2002. NCLB requires that each state rate schools based on the results of standardized tests in order to receive federal funding.
Schools that don’t report test scores showing that students are making adequate toward achieving subject area proficiency are subject to federal sanctions or a complete restructuring of the school. The importance of standardized test results grew in 2012 when President Obama implemented the Race to the Top program. In order to qualify for part of the over $4 billion of grant money offered through Race to the Top, states were required to include standardized test results in the process of identifying good and bad teachers.