Important science words to know across all disciplines include theory, hypothesis, model, experiment, data and significant. These words relate to study in fields ranging from biology to astrophysics, and are components of the scientific method. While words like theory and model are used in ordinary conversation, their scientific meaning is more specific and focused.
Other important general science words including equation, analysis, deduction and criteria relate to statistical analysis and data evaluation. Statistics is vital to the analysis of experimental results, and an understanding of statistical vocabulary such as mean, standard deviation, distribution, dependent variable and independent variable is useful for all scientists.
Words used across all disciplines refer to elements of the scientific method. Experiments are performed to test a hypothesis. Data gathered from an experiment is examined statistically to see if it is significant, or a finding that could not occur by chance. As more is known in a field, a model is created of how things work. Models that explain many things and stand the test of time become theories.
Each discipline of science has its own vocabulary particular to that field. Cell biologists discuss organelles, cell walls and deoxyribonucleic acid while chemists refer to periodic tables and noble gases. Most scientific fields, however, share "-logy", the study of, as a suffix. Examples include biology, the study of life; zoology, the study of animals; and geology, the study of the earth.