Identifying the parts of a sentence requires knowing the parts of speech. Finding one of the two major parts of a sentence necessitates locating the nouns or pronouns to which the sentence refers. This is the simple subject. To find the simple predicate, locate the verb or verbs in the sentence, the words that show action or existence.
The complete subject is the simple subject plus all of the words and phrases that modify it. Adjectives, adjectival prepositional phrases and articles are typical modifiers of the simple subject.
The complete predicate is the simple predicate and all of its modifiers, objects and complements. Adverbs and adverbial phrases modify simple predicates. Other words sometimes found in the complete predicate are direct and indirect objects and complements.
To see if a direct object is in the sentence, determine if there is an action verb. If there is, ask "what" or "whom" after the verb to reveal the direct object. If a direct object exists, ask "to whom or what" or "for whom or what" after the action verb to find the indirect object, if there is one.
If a state of being verb is the simple predicate, check for complements by finding nouns or adjectives after the verb that describe or rename the subject. Any such word is a complement.
Prepositional phrases are groups of words that begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun, which is the object of the preposition. These phrases appear in subjects and predicates.