The main types of federal grants available to college students in the United States are the Pell Grant, FSEOG, TEACH Grant and military family grants. Further information about state and federal grants can be found on the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid website.
Federal Pell Grants are typically awarded to students who have not yet earned their graduate or professional degree and don't make enough money to pay their full tuition. The FSEOG, or Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant, is designed to help undergraduate students with profound financial need. This grant is considered to be "campus based" aid because it is issued through the financial aid office of a given school. Not all colleges and universities participate in the program.
The TEACH grant was established to provide assistance to students who are working toward a teaching degree, especially if they plan to work in a high-demand subject area or low-income school district. Federal grants may also be extended to students whose parent or guardian died as a result of certain military service.
To receive any federal grant, a student first needs to fill out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid. These can be accessed from the Federal Student Aid website. The FAFSA helps to determine what grants they are eligible for. The exact amount awarded for any state or federal grant depends on several factors, including financial need and the school the student plans to attend.