Fallacies are errors in reasoning used in oral, written and visual arguments to intentionally disguise the lack of logic or to substitute for factual argumentative points. A fallacy in logic is an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid. Hundreds of fallacies have been identified and labelled. Fallacies are commonly found in everyday life, particularly in advertisements and politics.Continue Reading
Campaigns for political office frequently employ logical fallacies. Common examples of fallacies used by candidates include ad hominem attacks against the opponent instead of the topic; false dichotomy or false dilemma arguments, in which a limited number of options are unfairly presented with the implication that choice must be made from only these; and the straw man argument, in which the reasoner sets up a weak argument and then knocks it down by oversimplifying the opponent's position and then refuting the oversimplification.
Fallacies are found in visual arguments and arrangements as well because visual information can be distorted or manipulated just as words can. Because people tend to believe what they see, visual forms of persuasion can be powerful. Various fallacies are used visually, including style over substance, appeal to emotions, appeal to authority and loaded language. Bandwagon fallacies that present the impression that everyone is doing, buying or believing something are commonly used in advertising attempts to persuade a consumer to also do, buy or believe something.Learn more about Public Speaking
In public speaking, several persuasive tips or techniques include emphasizing main points through vocal sounds rising and falling, using gestures to express an idea, asserting judgments about each finding, pre-empting common objectives, establishing common ground, using emotion and creating new approaches for the audience. Utilizing these tips and techniques in persuasive public speaking can help to create a persuasive argument and to influence the audience to agree with the speaker's argument.Full Answer >
A preview statement is essentially the introduction to a speech, outlining the key points that the speaker intends to cover. More than that, it serves almost as a table of contents, informing listeners of the number and ordering of a speech's points.Full Answer >
A Lincoln-Douglas debate case contains five structures of the main sermon, including the introduction, definitions, value, points and conclusion. A Lincoln-Douglas debate revolves around an oration style that flows easily from point to point as evidence supports the speech's thesis and conclusion.Full Answer >
Critical thinking is defined as active use of a person's reasoning ability to identify and analyze arguments, ideas and situations to reach rational conclusions or decisions. Critical thinking also involves developing reliable evaluations before believing something.Full Answer >