Influential personal education philosophies include the education theories of John Herbart, John Dewey and Paulo Freire. Herbart, a German philosopher in the 18th and 19th centuries, founded pedagogy as a discipline and focused heavily on education as a process to craft citizens to fulfill certain roles in a society.
Dewey, an influential American pragmatist philosopher and psychologist during the early 20th century, espoused an educational philosophy that focused on the social and interactive processes of learning. He argued that curriculum should encourage student interaction and individual learning.
Freire, a 20th century Brazilian educator and philosopher, is noted for a philosophy that viewed education as a political act that sets students free from oppression.