The Center for Public Education states that the disadvantages of homework vary. Some research indicates no direct relationship between learning and homework, whereas other studies state that homework can cause stress in young students and that students from lower-income homes may not have access to the same amount of parental assistance and resources as students from higher-income homes.
Other possible disadvantages of homework include students' lack of free time (including time with family), increased mental fatigue, development of negative attitudes toward school, decreased self-confidence, worsened relationships with parents because of grades and decreased interest in learning. Some students may also receive excessive help from parents, cheat outside of the classroom and feel too much pressure to compete with other students. Students who receive too much homework help from parents may come to rely too heavily on parental involvement in their studies. Younger children in particular may not benefit from homework because their developing social and mental abilities, as well as their shorter attention spans, mitigate the efficacy of homework. Some research indicates that younger children benefit from smaller amounts of homework than older children. Because of a lack of resources or parental assistance and other factors, such as frequent moves, overcrowded homes and parents working several jobs, homework may create an achievement gap between students from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds.