Sixth-grade math textbooks typically cover ratios, number systems, expressions and equations, geometry and statistics. The approach varies by textbook, but each subsection expands upon the main concepts with individual lessons.
Number systems covered in sixth grade include multiplication and division of both fractions and whole numbers. Sixth graders learn to find factors and multiples of numbers to aid in multiplication and division of multi-digit numbers. Textbooks cover rational numbers and expand what the students have previously learned about them.
Sixth-grade textbooks include equations with variables. Sixth graders learn to solve for variables and explore the relationships between variables. Students learn to go deeper into algebraic expressions, building on skills they learned in fifth grade.
Geometry topics focus on exploring two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes. The topics include area, surface area and volume. Although students have already encountered these concepts in previous years, they learn to solve more complex problems in the sixth grade.
The statistics section covers collecting and comparing statistical data. Sixth graders learn to represent the data with number lines, box plots and other graphs.
The material in sixth-grade math textbooks also aims to build more general skills in sixth graders, such as persevering to solve a problem and reasoning both abstractly and quantitatively. Sixth graders are expected to develop arguments to support their reasoning.