Fourth grade math textbooks typically build upon the concepts learned in previous grades, including basic operations, place value, geometric shapes, measurement and fractions. Decimals, rounding and simple algebraic expressions are usually covered in fourth grade as well.
Through the course of the year, fourth graders learn to add and subtract two- and three-digit numbers, borrowing and carrying as needed. Students expand their multiplication and division skills from third grade to include multiple-digit problems and solve word problems that require them to multiply and divide. Fourth grade textbooks usually teach place value through the millions place, along with rounding and comparing whole numbers.
Fourth grade algebra concepts include solving simple expressions for missing numbers, recognizing and extending patterns, and identifying correct operations. Students learn to add, subtract and multiply fractions in fourth grade, as well as how to simplify, reduce and compare fractions. Most fourth grade texts also introduce mixed numbers before the end of the course.
In geometry, fourth graders expand on their knowledge of two- and three-dimensional shapes. They also study lines, angles and symmetry. Textbooks typically teach both metric and customary units of measurement, along with proper conversions. Students learn to measure the area and perimeter of basic shapes. Most fourth grade math textbooks introduce decimals near the end of the course, beginning with place value and progressing to adding and subtracting numbers that contain decimals.