Common parts of speech in the English language include nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, exclamations and determiners. The parts of speech are also called word classes.
Each part of speech plays its own role in a sentence. A noun indicates a person, place or thing. A verb describes the action that is taking place. An adjective modifies or describes a noun, while an adverb modifies or describes a verb.
Pronouns take the place of a previously stated noun to reference that same person or thing. For example, in this sentence, "Susan" is a noun and "her" is a pronoun: "Susan ate her cake."
A preposition shows the relationship between nouns or pronouns and other words in a sentence. Pronouns include words such as "in," "up," "before," "around" and "with." In the following sentence, "Thomas" is a noun and "in" is a preposition: "Thomas swung his sword in a circle."
A conjunction is a word that joins a series of items or two sentences together. Common conjunctions are words such as "and," "or," "but" and "if."
An exclamation is a word or phrase that expresses an emotion or exclaims something. A sentence using an exclamation often ends with an exclamation point.
A determiner is a word that comes before a noun and shows the reader which noun is being described or determined. Examples include "this," as in "this house," and "that," as in "that car."