Some basic parts of speech are verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions. Some additional parts of speech are determiners, pronouns, conjunctions and interjections. Some grammar sources consider determiners to be adjectives, and some sources split verbs into lexical verbs and auxiliary verbs.
A verb is an action or state. A noun is a thing or person. An adjective describes a noun. An adverb describes a verb, adjective or adverb. A preposition links a noun to another word.
A determiner limits a noun. A pronoun replaces a noun. A conjunction joins clauses, sentences or words. An interjection is a short exclamation. Verbs such as "work" or "run" are lexical verbs, whereas verbs such as "be" or "have" are auxiliary verbs.