Common Core Standards identify three primary areas of focus for fourth-grade math: multi-digit multiplication and division involving multi-digit conclusions; fraction equivalence, adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator and multiplying fractions by whole numbers; and understanding and classifying geometric figures by their properties. Fourth-graders work with large whole numbers, subtracting, adding, multiplying and dividing numbers up to 1,000,000. Students compare and order fractions to hundredths, use decimals through the hundredths and deal with conversions, such as ounces to pounds.
Fourth-grade math also challenges students to interpret data and to present and understand it in various forms such as graphs, charts and tables. In the fourth grade students learn about the metric system and various units of measurement, including millimeters, quarter-inches, pounds, kilograms, cups and milliliters. They also learn to estimate the area, perimeter and volume of different shapes and how to estimate and record temperatures, both Fahrenheit and Celsius, to the nearest five-degree interval.
In addition to specific mathematical applications and concepts, fourth-grade math is structured to help students expand their mathematical practices. Fourth-graders begin to develop the reasoning and skills to communicate and support their solutions to various problems. They continue to refine their skills using various mathematical tools, such as rulers, scales and protractors to solve problems. Language skills also become critical in fourth-grade math as word problems become more complicated.