Surveys measure customer satisfaction by attaching a quantifiable value to the degree of happiness a customer has with a product, company or service and collecting other data regarding the customer's demographics and experience with the subject. The company conducting the survey is then able to measure the degree of satisfaction in different customer segments according to the results of the survey.
When a company creates a customer satisfaction survey, it typically begins by setting a scale for the satisfaction level that correlates to a quantifiable value to make the results measurable. For example, the company may ask the user to rate satisfaction on a scale of one to five, with one relating to a low satisfaction level and five to a high level. Alternately, it may use a standard set of terms (such as "poor," "fair," "good" and "excellent") across a set number of options that describe the satisfaction level.
Many companies repeat this process within specific segments relevant to the survey's subject, such as rating satisfaction with different aspects of a service or finding out how a customer feels about the design of a product in addition to its ease of use. In each segment, the company uses multiple choice questions with standard answers to perform a statistical analysis on the customer's feelings towards the product or company.