Taxpayers can deduct a variety of expenses, including home-mortgage interest, property taxes and charitable contributions, according to the Internal Revenue Service. Taxpayers under age 65 also can claim uninsured medical and dental expenses when those charges are more than 10 percent of adjusted gross income.
Individuals who don't pay state income taxes can deduct their local and state sales taxes, using an IRS deduction table that details how much each state's residents can deduct. TurboTax notes that buyers who purchase large items, such as cars and boats, can add sales taxes on those items to the regular sales tax deduction. Taxpayers who pay state income tax can choose to deduct that tax or the sales tax.