The first stock market was invented in the 1300s when merchants of Venice began to trade securities received from other governments, according to Investopedia. This was done via slates with information on things for sale, which were carried to meetings with the merchant's clients.
Investopedia also states that the first stock exchange began in Belgium in 1531. It was located in Antwerp, where both lenders and brokers would meet to discuss business and government deals as well as debts. This stock exchange used bonds and promissory notes, but did not have actual stocks. However, partnerships formed during these meetings in Antwerp led to income production, similar to stocks.