The SERVQUAL model is a framework that is used to measure quality of service and identify areas for improvement. This model was developed by Valarie Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and Leonard Berry in the late 1980s. It was subsequently refined and renamed the RATER model.
The SERVQUAL model was originally based on 10 elements, but it was later modified to measure five factors that affect service quality, namely reliability, assurance, tangibility empathy, and responsiveness. These factors are coupled with future state, current situation and next actions to produce a gap analysis. The model is then used to develop a plan for improving aspects of customer service.