Different foundations may have different rules for researcher grant applications but, in general, researchers must prove that they meet a set of eligibility requirements that each foundation sets for itself, and they prove that they meet these requirements through their applications. Each foundation may supply its own application and have a unique application process. For example, researchers who want to apply for a grant through the Prevent Cancer Foundation need to access and make an account on the foundation's online proposal center and then fill out the online application, states the foundation's official website.
Cancer research grant applications must typically prove certain things about the people or organization applying for the grant. Like a job application, a cancer research grant application gives applicants the opportunity to prove that they can successfully do the job; in this case, the job in question is performing relevant research on cancer.
Some cancer foundations may require that grant proposals are peer reviewed by qualified scientists and research professionals as a part of the application process. For example, the American Cancer Society focuses its funding efforts on grant proposals that are peer reviewed, notes Cancer.org. This is because the ACS wants to focus on research projects that have the greatest chance of providing useful information.