Raw materials used to make plastic include carbon-rich oil and carbon compounds, called monomers, that are mixed with oxygen, sulfur or nitrogen. Organic compounds, such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, phenol, formaldehyde, ethylene glycol, vinyl chloride and acetonitrile, can also be found in plastics.Continue Reading
Organic or non-organic substances can be added to the plastic mix to change the nature of the plastic. The average content of additives is 20 percent by weight. Additives and fillers are used to reduce the cost of plastic production. Thermoset, or thermosetting, plastics cannot change form once they've cooled. In contrast, thermoplastics are more malleable, and when heat is applied to them they can return to their original form or be easily molded into another shape.
In 1870, chemist John Hyatt reacted nitrocellulose with camphor to make celluloid, a plastic polymer that was then used in camera film, pool balls, dental plates and ping-pong balls. In the 1930s, a chemist from the company Dupont, Wallace Carruthers, invented a plastic polymer made from the condensation of adipic acid and a certain type of diaminohexane monomer. The mixture created a type of plastic that could be formed into a more fibrous substance, like a fabric. Other plastic derivatives include Dacron, Styrofoam, polystyrene, polyethylene and vinyl.Learn more about Manufacturing
Although the chemical composition of wood varies from species to species, wood is primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, calcium, potassium, sulfur, nitrogen and magnesium. Most wood contains some amount of water as well.Full Answer >
Non-metals include hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, selenium and sulfur. The non-metals consist of elements in groups 14, 15 and 16 on the periodic table of elements. They include both solids and gases.Full Answer >
Crude oil mainly consists of hydrocarbon molecules, but impurities, such as sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, arsenic, vanadium, copper, nickel, sodium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride, are also present. The hydrocarbon molecules include straight chains, branched chains and rings.Full Answer >
Mild steel, also known as low carbon steel, is made from iron, sulfur, phosphorus, manganese and carbon. This type of steel is widely used for machined parts, non-critical components in tool and die sets and for parts that require tight radius bending.Full Answer >