The penalty for not having health insurance in 2015 is the greater of 2 percent of household income for the year, or $325 per adult and $162.50 per child, according to Healthcare.gov. In 2016, the penalty rises to the greater of 2.5 percent of household income or $695 per adult.
Penalties based on the number of individuals in the household are capped. For 2015, the maximum per family is $975, states Healthcare.gov. The other penalty, based on income, is calculated after a floor has been subtracted. For 2015, the floor for an individual is about $10,150.
Both versions are based on qualified health care coverage for each month, and a number of exemptions exist to eliminate the penalty. The penalty is calculated and paid when the individual or family files an income tax return, according to the Internal Revenue Service.