Big energy-producing companies such as Chevron, ExxonMobil and ConocoPhillips are invested in fracking, also known as hydraulic fracturing. These companies typically operate as lessors of the land on which the fracking is carried out. Oilfield service companies such as Schlumberger, Haliburton and Baker Hughes do the actual hydraulic fracturing.
The process of fracking depends on injecting a mixture of water, sand and a thickener such as guar gum into a well in order to release natural gas trapped under layers of rock, generally shale. Given that these raw materials are used in such large quantities, suppliers such as U.S. Silica Holdings and Emerge Energy Services LP are also key players in the fracking industry.