As of 2015, Medicare coverage is available for children who have had kidney transplants or who require dialysis regularly because their kidneys no longer function, according to Medicare. The child's parent or parent's spouse must have paid Social Security taxes and earned six credits within the last three years.
If a parent or parent's spouse of a child in end-stage renal disease is receiving or is eligible to receive benefits from the Railroad Retirement Board or Social Security, the child is eligible for Medicare coverage, notes Medicare. A child must be unmarried, under 22 years old, and the parent's biological or legally adopted child, or stepchild for one year or more. In some cases, a grandchild, step-grandchild or child between the ages of 22 and 26 can qualify.