Medical deductions are qualified expenses that taxpayers can claim on their federal income tax returns to reduce their tax bill. While many medical expenses are deductible, taxpayers under age 65 can take the deduction only if their expenses exceed 10 percent of their adjusted gross income, according to TurboTax.
Eligible medical deductions include doctor visits, prescription medications and surgical costs. Cosmetic procedures and diet food usually aren't eligible, TurboTax notes. Health insurance premiums that employees pay pretax aren't eligible deductions, explains the Internal Revenue Service. Through 2016, taxpayers over age 65 can deduct their medical expenses if the total exceeds 7.5 percent of their adjusted gross income.