The Vanilla prepaid debit card is issued by The Bancorp Bank, according to the MyVanilla website. Bancorp was ranked by The Nilson Report as one of 2014's top issuers of prepaid cards in the United States, as noted on TheBancorp.com.
It is important to understand the difference between card issuer, network and acquiring bank, because fees are incurred at each stage of the transaction process. CardFellow.com explains each role clearly. As the name implies, the issuer is the bank who issues a card to an individual holder. Network refers to such associations as Visa and MasterCard, the governing bodies that oversee transactions within their brand. The acquiring bank maintains accounts and receives payments on behalf of merchants with whom a cardholder does business.