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Sand fracking is when sand is used as a proppant and blasted into a gas shale well to promote the production of gas. Sand is mixed with industrial fluids and water during hydraulic fracturing to force open underground cracks where natural gas is produced.

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  • How Do Hydraulic Cranes Work?

    Q: How Do Hydraulic Cranes Work?

    A: Hydraulic cranes work using the concept of transmitting a force from one point to another through a fluid. Fluids, especially liquids, play a vital role in hydraulics because of their mechanical properties such as how they move, how they react to pressure and how they resist movement.
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  • What Are the Big Orange Balls on Power Lines?

    Q: What Are the Big Orange Balls on Power Lines?

    A: The big orange balls found on some high power lines are designed to alert lower flying aircraft of the presence of these lines. Typically, these warning balls often are fashioned out of aluminum. In some cases, they are red in color.
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  • What Is a Power Plant?

    Q: What Is a Power Plant?

    A: A power plant is a facility for the generation of bulk electric power. Power plants produce electric energy from another form of energy. The type of converted energy depends on the type of power plant. Each type of power plant poses a distinct set of advantages and drawbacks.
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  • How Is Titanium Obtained?

    Q: How Is Titanium Obtained?

    A: Titanium is obtained through mining its ores, mostly in the form of titanium oxide in the minerals rutile and ilmenite, from open pits. The titanium oxide in these minerals must first be purified, then converted to titanium chloride, before titanium can be obtained. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, but its mining and processing must be managed with expense and environmental concerns in mind.
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  • What Is National Safety Month?

    Q: What Is National Safety Month?

    A: National Safety Month is an initiative created and run by the National Safety Council. The Council is a non-profit agency with a Congressional charter but is not administered by the United States government. June is National Safety Month and is designed to raise awareness of health and safety risks.
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  • What Are Pennsylvania's Major Industries?

    Q: What Are Pennsylvania's Major Industries?

    A: The key industries in Pennsylvania as of 2013 are agribusiness, energy, technology, advanced manufacturing and materials, tourism, life sciences and the film industry, according to the Pennsylvania Department of Community & Economic Development. Among the largest is the agribusiness industry, which ships $32 billion in food products annually.
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  • How Much Does a 55-Gallon Drum of Oil Weigh?

    Q: How Much Does a 55-Gallon Drum of Oil Weigh?

    A: The weight of a 55-gallon oil drum depends on oil density. A 55-gallon drum of crude oil with a density of 790 kilograms per cubic meter would weigh about 188.98 kilograms.
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  • What Are Agro-Based Industries?

    Q: What Are Agro-Based Industries?

    A: Agro, or agriculture-based industries deal with growing plants and food for consumer use and consumption. Three basic levels exist in agriculture businesses.
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  • How Much Weight Can a Dump Truck Carry?

    Q: How Much Weight Can a Dump Truck Carry?

    A: Large dump trucks can haul about 28,000 pounds of material per load, equal to about 14 tons. However, dump trucks vary greatly, and dump truck manufacturers produce a variety of models, each with a different capacity.
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  • What Are Some Examples of Secondary Industries?

    Q: What Are Some Examples of Secondary Industries?

    A: Some examples of secondary industries are textile production, steel production, oil refining, food processing, aerospace manufacturing and consumer electronics. The automotive, brewing, energy, tobacco, ship-making and chemical industries are also secondary.
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  • What Pests Harm Cotton Plants?

    Q: What Pests Harm Cotton Plants?

    A: There are several insects that prey on cotton plants, including boll weevils, cotton leafworms, cotton fleahoppers and cotton aphids. Cotton plants are relatively hardy crops, but are susceptible to damage from a number of bugs and insects. They are attacked by many types of predatory species, including beetles, mites, spiders and aphids.
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  • What Is the Difference Between the Public Sector and the Private Sector?

    Q: What Is the Difference Between the Public Sector and the Private Sector?

    A: The public sector consists of organizations that are owned and operated by the government, while the private sector consists of organizations that are privately owned and that do not form part of the government. The public sector includes organizations run by federal, state and municipal government bodies.
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  • What Do We Use Oil For?

    Q: What Do We Use Oil For?

    A: Oil has many industrial and household uses. Crude oil, a non-renewable fossil fuel, is refined into gasoline and diesel fuels that power automobiles and other engines. Oil is also used to lubricate moving metal parts in order to reduce friction and heat. Kerosene and propane are by-products of oil refinement and are commonly used for home heating and cooking.
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  • How Much Does a Manhole Cover Weigh?

    Q: How Much Does a Manhole Cover Weigh?

    A: A manhole cover typically weighs between 90 and 150 pounds, according to Government Security News. At 450 pounds per cubic foot, a 32-inch cast-iron manhole cover can weigh up to 250 pounds.
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  • What Are the Different Types of Hospitals?

    Q: What Are the Different Types of Hospitals?

    A: Hospitals are considered community hospitals or teaching/academic hospitals. On a broader scale, hospitals are categorized by ownership: for-profit, not-for-profit and government. Hospitals may also be classified by the number of beds.
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  • How Is Coal Used?

    Q: How Is Coal Used?

    A: The primary use of coal is as a source of energy. Nations around the world use coal to produce electricity. Steel manufacturers also use coal to create a fuel called coke. Coal is formed from plants that were buried in the earth millions of years ago.
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  • What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Mining?

    Q: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Mining?

    A: Mining gives people a portion of the resources needed for modern civilization, but it can also lead to environmental harm. While some are in favor of mining due to the resources it produces and the jobs it provides in the U.S., some are opposed to mining based on opposition to destructive mining practices and environmental concerns.
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  • What Is Sand Fracking?

    Q: What Is Sand Fracking?

    A: Sand fracking is when sand is used as a proppant and blasted into a gas shale well to promote the production of gas. Sand is mixed with industrial fluids and water during hydraulic fracturing to force open underground cracks where natural gas is produced.
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  • How Far Apart Are Telephone Poles Situated?

    Q: How Far Apart Are Telephone Poles Situated?

    A: Telephone poles, also called utility poles, differ in their spacing when located in urban versus rural areas. Within a U.S. urban landscape, utility poles tend to be spaced 125 feet apart. In rural areas, utility poles are spaced as much as 300 feet apart.
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  • What Kind of Fuel Do Trains Run On?

    Q: What Kind of Fuel Do Trains Run On?

    A: North American trains primarily use diesel fuel as their source of energy.. Electric locomotives are in widespread use in Europe and Asia and in some commuter runs in the United States.
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  • Why Are Diamonds so Expensive?

    Q: Why Are Diamonds so Expensive?

    A: Diamonds are expensive because the supply of diamonds on the world market is restricted by DeBeers. The price of diamonds would be much lower if the supply were not artificially suppressed.
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