The provisions of the Affordable Care Act, commonly referred to as "Obamacare," apply equally to all U.S. citizens and nationals residing within the United States who are not currently incarcerated. U.S. citizens or nationals residing in territories of the United States can still use these provisions but are not required to.
U.S. citizens residing in foreign countries for 330 days or more out of a rolling 12-month period are also not required to abide by these provisions. Other citizens who do not need to sign up for health coverage through a state or federally operated marketplace include those who pay for individual coverage on their own or whose health insurance is provided by an employer.
Noncitizens who reside within the United States are eligible for participation in their designated health-care marketplace if they have an eligible immigration status. These statuses include green-card holders known as "lawful permanent residents," those granted asylum within the United States, recognized refugees, residents in the United States on student or work visas and victims of trafficking. Many other eligible statuses exist, and an exhaustive list is found on the healthcare.gov website. To determine the final cost of health coverage through the Affordable Care Act, individuals or families must register and apply through their designated marketplace.