There is no difference between a check card and a debit card. According to Visa, they are both cards that access funds from a checking account. They work similar to a check in that the money used to make purchases is drawn directly from the checking account.
While check cards and debit cards are the same, there are other types of cards that work differently. The first is an ATM card. It is primarily used to make cash withdrawals from ATM machines. They can be used to make purchases, but the retailer has to be set up to handle this specific type of card. Debit cards and checking cards, on the other hand, can be used extensively. They will usually have a Visa or MasterCard logo printed on them showing that they can be used to make purchases. Using a debit card is like paying in cash, without the need for carrying physical money.
The other main type of card that is available is a credit card. It works differently to a debit, check or ATM card in that it is not connected to a checking account. Instead it allows the buyer to make purchases on credit. The money is repaid at a later date, and the credit provider typically charges the buyer interest.