A chief executive officer doesn't need a specific degree, though many CEOs at top corporations have master's degrees. A Master of Business Administration degree is common as it provides a broad overview of executive leadership skills and knowledge. Finance-related degrees are also common.
CEOs sometimes earn degrees in technical fields related to their industries. For instance, a CEO of a chemical manufacturing business might have a degree in chemical engineering. While a person can technically become a CEO of a small business he starts, the traditional path to becoming a CEO of a large firm normally includes several years of experience working up through the company.