Common types of hospital equipment include sphygmomanometers, ophthalmoscopes, otoscopes, stethoscopes, thermometers and electrocardiographs, according to About.com. Sphygmomanometers are used to measure blood pressure, ophthalmoscopes allow physicians to look into a patient's eyes, otoscopes are used to examine the ear canal, and electrocardiographs are capable of measuring a patient's heart activity.
Different types of sphygmomanometers are manual, aneroid, digital and portable, notes About.com. If a patient's blood pressure is too high, he becomes vulnerable to a number of physical complications, such as arterial, heart, brain and kidney damage, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Direct and indirect are two different types of ophthalmoscopes that are most often used in outpatient and physical exams, notes About.com. Direct ophthalmoscopes give physicians an upright and up-close image of the eye fundus, while the indirect opthalmoscope gives an inverted image of the human eye. The indirect variety is commonly used in patients who have cataracts, because the device's light is more powerful.
The stethoscope is the most easily recognized piece of hospital equipment and is used to listen to the lungs and blood flow, in addition to a person's heartbeat, according to About.com. It also comes in an electronic variety, which offers better quality of sound. Electronic stethoscopes can also be hooked up to a computer, providing the ability to save the information.