Registered nurses, medical sonographers and dental hygienists need only an associate's degree to get started, and these fields offer median pay of at least $64,000 annually and strong projected demand, as of 2015. Most other well-paying jobs available to graduates with two-year degrees are in medical and engineering support fields.
Air traffic controllers have the top-paying jobs available with an associate's degree, according to Forbes, but the median pay of $108,000 annually is offset by high stress levels and limited growth in projected demand. The top-paying medical fields that require only a two-year degree are radiation therapy and nuclear medicine technology. Engineering and technology positions requiring two-year-degrees include construction managers, aerospace engineering and operations technicians, and electrical and electronic engineering technicians.