You may obtain a list of Canadian postal codes by province from AggData.com. It provides a free downloadable file that contains each postal code, province, city and the respective latitude and longitude.
Canadian postal codes are made up of six digits. The first one is a letter from A through Y, and it represents the specific postal district to which the address belongs. Each province is assigned one postal district, with the exception of Quebec and Ontario which have three and five postal codes respectively. Together with the second and third digits, they represent the forward sortation area.The last three digits represent the local delivery unit.