A curriculum vitae (CV) is more inclusive and expansive than a resume and can be used in place of one rather than as a component of one. A CV includes information about societal membership, publications, grants and areas of interest and are commonly used in academia.
Resumes are typically limited to work history and experience and to where education was received. They are brief documents intended to frame their subjects as valuable employees.
CV are more comprehensive and give a richer sense of the person as an individual. They cover that person's academic and scholarly accomplishments as well as charting their leadership through grants and records of presentations given and papers published.