As of 2014, taxpayers can deduct certain medical expenses that exceed 10 percent of the adjusted gross income for the year, claims TurboTax. Qualified medical expenses include surgeries, dental care, psychiatric visits and vision care.
Additional medical expenses that are tax deductible include prescription drugs, false teeth and hearing aids, states the IRS. The cost of transportation to and from medical care providers is also deductible. Expenses that are not tax deductible include those that are reimbursed by an employer, cosmetic procedures and nonprescription drugs. Taxpayers must itemize each deduction, which means the standard deduction cannot be used. Schedule A must be completed and attached to the tax return to claim the medical expenses deduction.