People over age 65 take the same personal exemptions on their federal taxes as other filers, but they can take higher standard deductions, notes the Internal Revenue Service. The additional deduction is $1,550 for single taxpayers and $1,250 for each married person aged 65 or older, as of 2015.
Married couples who file jointly can take the higher deduction for one spouse if only one partner is over 65, explains the IRS. Taxpayers who claim the additional deduction must turn 65 by Jan. 2 of the year following the applicable tax year. Blind taxpayers are eligible for the same additional standard deduction, regardless of age.