Bias advertising can be identified by differentiating between propaganda or purely informational marketing materials. This is accomplished by expanding one's media literacy. Studying and identifying the strategies used by professionals to create advertising is crucial to separating the bias from the unbiased advertisements.
A study in the Journal of Marketing Research indicates that advertising may create media bias through the "readership effect," which takes place when a media outlet has a large number of readers and must produce unbiased content to avoid ostracizing a portion of the readership.
Some media outlets slant content to gain subscribers as well as advertisers. This creates the "incremental pricing effect," which often polarizes certain targeted groups to alleviate advertising competition.