Pediatricians have career advancement opportunities in specialty areas of children's health care, such as surgery, oncology, endocrinology and allergy medicine, as reported by the Houston Chronicle. Many of these advancement opportunities require the physician to complete a fellowship after residency, although the career requirements can vary.
Pediatric endocrinologists diagnose and treat conditions related to hormonal levels in children. Pediatricians with this specialty focus may see patients with conditions such as diabetes, puberty complications, thyroid problems, growth disorders or hypocalcemia, a condition characterized by abnormal vitamin D levels. Following a pediatric residency, a physician must complete a pediatric endocrinology fellowship, which may take three or more years to complete, to practice pediatric endocrinology.
A pediatric oncologist treats patients up to age 18 with cancer. After pediatric residency, a pediatric oncologist participates in specialized programs involving laboratory and clinical research. Training pediatricians also receive exposure to the area of pediatric oncology during their oncology rotations that take place during their three-year residency training.
Many pediatric patients suffer from allergy-related conditions, such as allergic rhinitis, sinus infections, asthma and hives. Such patients may see a pediatric allergist if their conditions are severe enough to warrant specialty care. To get involved in this area of pediatric medicine, physicians must receive fellowship training and pass an exam administered by the American Board of Allergy and Immunology.