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What are the 14 management principles listed by Henri Fayol?

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Henri Fayol's 14 principles of management cover division of work, authority, discipline, unity of command and unity of direction. Other principles include subordination of individual interests to the general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain and order, in addition to equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative and team spirit plus unity, also known as esprit de corps. Fayol developed these 14 principles of management following many years of experience as an engineer heading a mining company.

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Henri Fayol explains the division of work by advising managers to define specialized roles for employees to better measure skills, efficiency and output. Managers must have the authority to give orders responsibility.

Discipline must be upheld and enforced in organizations. Unity of command refers to employees being under one direct supervisor for accountability and streamlined reporting. This leads to unity of direction, according to which teams with the same objective are coordinated together following one plan.

The subordination of individual interests to the general interest means that the interests of one employee should not become more important than those of the group. Fair treatment and remuneration including financial and non-financial compensation guarantees satisfaction for everyone.

The centralization principle explains how decision-making should be balanced, flowing down to different employee levels. Scalar chain explains how employees should be aware of where they stand in the organization's chain of command.

A work place must be orderly, clean, tidy and safe. Managers should be fair in treating staff equally while maintaining discipline and minimizing employee turnover by strengthening the stability of personnel tenure.

Employees should be allowed to be creative and show initiative. By involving all employees in the common goal of the business, managers promote unity and team spirit.

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