Since scalp damage can have many causes, it is imperative to figure out what caused the initial damage before deciding upon a proper treatment course. Some of the most common types of scalp damage include sunburn, chemical burns from certain salon services and damage from scalp conditions such as dandruff, fungal infections and psoriasis. According to WebMD, ringworm can also cause rashes and hair loss on the scalp.
Allure magazine says to prevent sunburn by applying sunscreen along the hair part and by wearing a hat or scarf on sunny days. If a burn has already occurred, it is best treated with cold milk applied to the scalp with a damp cloth. Flaky and peeling skin can be removed with a gentle exfoliating shampoo.
Chemical burns are best avoided by following manufacturer's instructions regarding application times when using perms, relaxers and color. The Mayo Clinic advises rinsing the affected area with cool water for 10 to 20 minutes and covering it with a dry, sterile dressing. Pain can be treated with over-the-counter pain relievers.
Scalp conditions must first be diagnosed by a medical professional, and many require a prescription for treatment. While some scalp conditions can't be avoided, some are passed through contact and the sharing of hair utensils and hats.