Shampoo was invented by Hans Schwarzkopf in 1898. He created a water-soluble powder shampoo that was easier to use than the oils and soaps traditionally used to clean hair at the end of the 19th century.
Schwarzkopf was a Berlin chemist who developed a number of perfume and hair-care products. His water-soluble powder shampoo was an immediate success and soon reached a wider market. However, his shampoo dulled the hair, as it caused unwanted alkaline reactions.
More hair-care innovations came in the 1920s and 1930s. Schwarzkopf continued to work on his line of hair-care products, launching a liquid shampoo in 1927. In America, Dr. John Breck developed a pH-balanced shampoo, which he introduced to New England in 1930.