The vast majority of high-quality rubies sold around the world originate in the Mogok region of Myanmar, formerly Burma, but there are other large sources in Vietnam and Nepal as well as in other regions of Myanmar like Mong Hsu. Most rubies are cut in their countries of origin because of the strict regulations governing the international trade and sale of precious gems and other stones.
Mogok rubies are famed around the world for their quality. This includes their largely unique ability to reflect solid, strong colors under many diverse lighting conditions, an unusual trait for even gem-quality rubies from other extraction and cutting locations.
Rubies from the Mong Hsu region of Myanmar are generally of lower quality than Mogok rubies and often require extensive and controversial heat treatments in order to reliably display their color. This has made them a contentious stone in trade and jewelry craft where their quality and relative merits are often debated.
The Nepalese ruby market opened in 1980 when a goatherd discovered rubies in the mountains. Vietnamese ruby production, while plagued by low-quality stones, is nonetheless a prominent part of world ruby excavation, cutting and sale on the international market. Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Australia and Montana also produce small numbers of rubies.