Amber gemstones were formed by the fossilization of tree resin from the Pinus succinifera tree during the Tertiary period, 50 million years ago. Amber contains animal and plant inclusions, mostly mosquitoes and other insect species.
Amber is one of the few organic gemstones, along with pearl, coral, and ivory. The word amber was derived from the Middle Persian word "ambar." Amber is formed over time and through resistance. Its transformation is sparked by both high temperatures and pressure of the overlying resinous sediments. Amber is an amorphous structure with low specific gravity and low density. Kaliningrad, Russia is the leading source of amber gems.